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Vertical Courtyard House / Manoj Patel Design Studio

first_img “COPY” Save this picture!© Umang Shah+ 29Curated by Hana Abdel Share ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/949371/vertical-courtyard-house-manoj-patel-design-studio Clipboard Year:  Houses Projects Photographs:  Umang ShahArchitect In Charge:Manoj Patel Design StudioDesign Team:Manoj Patel, Shivani Tamboli, Aishwarya Gupte, Urvesh, RajeshwariCity:VadodaraCountry:IndiaMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Umang ShahRecommended ProductsMetallicsSculptformClick-on Battens in Ivanhoe ApartmentsFiber Cements / CementsSwisspearlSwisspearl Largo Fiber Cement PanelsDoorsSolarluxBi-Folding Doors – EcolineDoorsGorter HatchesRoof Hatch – RHT AluminiumText description provided by the architects. The residential dwelling is locality in the physical basis of village community of Vadodara; Gujarat, India. The residence is planned by exploring the interaction between surrounding houses, dense greenery and the village lifestyle. The owner of the house has a nuclear family consisting the couple and their children. They are accustomed to live a simple and quite life based on their village community. While approaching this project, the main challenge was to incorporate an existing bank structure on the ground and create a house which feels close to nature.Save this picture!© Umang ShahSave this picture!First Floor PlanSave this picture!© Umang ShahEvolving the thought process, for this west facing house, we decided to take in the diffused light and create a volumetric mass. Here the study of climate plays an important role in planning in an organized layout with multiple voids in the form of terraces and double height spaces. The absence of openings on west façade provides a large surface area for cladding. Vernacular material- clay roof tiles was identified to clad which is low cost and has longevity. The pattern is explored through various arrangements and craftsmanship that depicts the toran graphics at 45 degree angles. The proportions of clay roof tile strips casts shadow on the surface based on sun’s movement in Indian context. The screening keeps the interior spaces cool and yet stands out of the local fabric.Save this picture!© Umang ShahTo differentiate the existing ground structure and the entry gateway of the dwelling, a huge pergola framed structure with adjacent recessed green wall is created in bold dark colors to emphasis the massing. The sun’s harsh rays get cut due to the pergolas and keep the parking space shaded. When entering the main structure on the first floor, is double height foyer partly covered with vertical fins to protect from west glazing and to have a visual connectivity across the road. The door shows a different concept of merging jali effect with safety measure as new see through screen. Play of bold palette emphasis the intricate beauty of the door.Save this picture!© Umang ShahThe house has primary functions of living, kitchen, dining and bedrooms on the first and second floor respectively. To bring in the traditional art and craft of village as contemporary outcome, the living room is transformed into double height space in plain palette contrasting to the colorful patterned fabrics and rug. The proportions of openings bring in the required light and ventilation, preventing the harsh sun. As an alternate to monotonous kitchen interiors, here to depict the theme based, a contrasting color palette of brown is used distinctively with white shade.Save this picture!© Umang ShahSave this picture!Section 01Save this picture!© Umang ShahThe dining space is arranged around an inner double height courtyard in the middle of the house, creating an airy, peaceful and quiet space separate from the outside space. The crafted backdrop mural becomes the focus for the space and forms an introvert dinning, helping to connect the family with the nature and themselves. There are many layers of double height spaces, voids even designed for the master bedrooms on the first and second floor. To have privacy and visual connectivity with the dining space vertical slits have been designed on one of the bedroom walls. The connected punctured huge balcony creates air corridors for the internal as well as external space.  Keeping with the interior theme, backdrop has been carved from minimum wooden panels which make it appear large.Save this picture!© Umang ShahThe staircase sets its own identity in the double height space through the semi open railing element designed to combined adjoining tv wall unit and an above over hung passage in play of contrasting yellow and grey. This creates an illusion of whole mass popping out of the inward looking subtle colored mass. The master bedroom on the upper floor has large balcony acting as a barrier and canopy for the first floor below. This acts an interactive link making it look voluminous connected frame mass. The beauty of the backdrop gets enhanced in pink graphics and texture of wooden laminates with the play of shadow.Save this picture!© Umang ShahStyling for kid’s room, color palette is perceived in vibrant combination of pink and violet with interactive visual experience. The study table has been designed adjacent to an opening to get diffused light and close to nature feel due to dense vegetations around. Through this project, we incorporated simple methods to create architectural spaces, use of common local material to clad and color palette of pop out shades which enhance the beauty of mass. From every position outside the house, one can see different large openings for ample of airflow and natural lighting into the spaces, to create a warm feel.Save this picture!© Umang ShahProject gallerySee allShow lessPR Residence / studio.talkSelected ProjectsFineman & Krassen Headquarters / JYA-RCHITECTSSelected Projects Share India Vertical Courtyard House / Manoj Patel Design StudioSave this projectSaveVertical Courtyard House / Manoj Patel Design Studio Vertical Courtyard House / Manoj Patel Design Studio CopyAbout this officeManoj Patel Design StudioOfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesVadodaraOn FacebookIndiaPublished on October 15, 2020Cite: “Vertical Courtyard House / Manoj Patel Design Studio” 14 Oct 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Browse the CatalogSinkshansgroheBathroom Mixers – LogisVinyl Walls3MExterior Vinyl Finish – DI-NOC™ StonePartitionsSkyfoldWhere to Increase Flexibility in SchoolsTiles / Mosaic / GresiteCupa PizarrasVentilated Facade – CUPACLAD UprightGlassLAMILUXGlass Roof PR60ConcreteKrytonCrystalline Waterproofing – KIMSkylightsVELUX CommercialAtrium Longlight Skylights in ExperimentariumMetal PanelsLorin IndustriesAnodized Aluminum – Copper FinishesStonesFranken-SchotterWall Covering & CladdingWindowsRabel Aluminium SystemsMinimal Casement Windows – Rabel 8400 Slim Super Thermal PlusSwingsStudio StirlingHanging Chair – BasketWallcovering / CladdingArrigoni WoodsWood Cladding – AcousticMore products »Save世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream CopyHouses•Vadodara, India ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/949371/vertical-courtyard-house-manoj-patel-design-studio Clipboard Photographs Architects: Manoj Patel Design Studio Area Area of this architecture project 2020 “COPY” Area:  287 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project last_img read more

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DFID grants £5.5 million for UK projects fighting global poverty

first_imgDFID grants £5.5 million for UK projects fighting global poverty  25 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Howard Lake | 8 May 2008 | News AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis The Department for International Development (DFID) has announced the recipients of £5.5 million in grants to help people in the UK get personally involved in fighting global poverty.Successful projects include fair trade football tournaments, radio lessons for schoolchildren in developing countries, and farm visits for 5-11 year olds.Secretary of State for International Development Douglas Alexander announced the 26 projects across the UK that will benefit from the new Development Awareness Fund (DAF). They will receive £1.86 million in the first year and a total of £5.6 million over their three year lifetime.Alexander said: “This is the latest in DFID’s drive to involve British people from all walks of life in tackling poverty in developing countries.“We trade more and more with people from all over the world so it is important that we understand how our actions and choices affect the lives of others and how we can make a difference by getting involved”.The new projects, being funded over three years, bring the total number of Development Awareness Fund projects currently running to 83.The Development Awareness Fund, which has been running since 1998, is designed to provide grants of between £10,000 and £100,000 a year for projects that are designed to promote public knowledge and understanding of development issues.www.dfid.gov.uk/funding/daf.asp Tagged with: Funding About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.last_img read more

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On the picket line

first_imgWorkers at a Christmas tree farm in North Carolina.N.C. Christmas tree workers stop Scrooge wage theftWhen we light up Christmas trees, we don’t think about the workers who plant and harvest them. In North Carolina they’re Mexican migrants who face harsh working conditions and intimidation in the fields. While the 2016 Christmas tree industry generated $2.04 billion, according to the National Christmas Tree Association (Telesur, Dec. 25), none of these gains went to the workers. Instead, Scrooge bosses abused and stole from them.During spring planting, the owners of Hart-T-Tree farm in Grassy Creek exposed workers to hazardous chemicals. Herbicides were sprayed while the men worked nearby, a violation of chemical guidelines mandating a 10-day waiting period after application. Workers became sick, suffering from headaches, dizziness, vomiting and diarrhea. During the harvest, instead of transporting workers in trucks, the bosses forced them to ride on top of a tractor bed filled with shifting trees down winding mountain roads, which led to fractured arms and bruised ribs.But once the owners began deducting rent, electric and gas from their pay — illegal under the H-2A visa “guest worker” program — the workers contacted the Farm Labor Organizing Committee, which represents 10,000 H-2A workers in the state. FLOC discovered the bosses had shorted workers’ wages, paying them $9 an hour, when the collective bargaining agreement of the N.C. Growers Association stipulated a minimum of $11.27. With FLOC’s help, the workers filed a grievance and won; $330,000 in stolen wages was returned to 54 Hart-T-Tree workers.“A settlement of this nature being reached and paid out in a matter of a few weeks is unheard of in agriculture,” said Justin Flores, FLOC vice president. As one worker told Payday Report, “We gotta organize; this is the hardest work out there. We’re human beings, too.” (Dec. 18)CWA wins precedent-setting protections for trans workersThe Communication Workers announced Dec. 21 that over 21,000 AT&T wireless retail workers have reached a precedent-setting tentative agreement. In addition to curbing outsourcing and raising pay, it provides the widest-reaching protections for transgender workers in any telecom industry contract. The agreement includes the first-ever enforceable protections against discrimination based on gender identity in 16 states with no statewide nondiscrimination law covering that category. The agreement also outlines a clear process for redressing discrimination through the union grievance and arbitration process across 36 states covered by CWA’s bargaining unit.“This contract shines a light on the union power to drive progress,” stated Dennis G. Trainor, vice president of CWA District One. “Let this be a signal to opponents of LGBTQ equality, who are nearly always opponents of workers’ rights too: We stand strong together and will tear down all obstacles to full equality.”CWA’s hard-fought agreement with AT&T, on which workers will vote Jan. 12, also provides 10.1 percent pay raises over the four-year contract; by its end the workers will make on average $19.20/hour. Over the last 11 months, the workers held rallies and picket lines in 36 states and Washington, D.C., dramatizing their fight with a 3-day strike in May.FDNY civilian workforce files discrimination suitA multi-million-dollar federal class-action lawsuit was filed Dec. 1 by seven plaintiffs against the city of New York alleging the Fire Department systematically discriminates against African-American workers in its civilian workforce and Emergency Medical Service. Based on a 2016 complaint to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission charging discriminatory practices, the suit alleges that the FDNY continues to resist hiring African Americans, asserting it “remains one of the least-diverse municipal agencies not only in New York City but in the nation.” Black FDNY firefighters settled a discrimination lawsuit three years ago.This lawsuit claims FDNY leadership hasn’t adopted practices to reduce or stop discrimination; Black workers are not promoted to decision-making jobs and are not compensated as much as other employees; and City Hall has failed to control FDNY practices. Among their demands, the plaintiffs want the court to appoint an outside monitor to audit compensation for five or more years. (Amsterdam News, Dec. 14)Chicago hotel workers win ‘Hands Off, Pants On’ ordinanceWith millions of women testifying to sexual harassment or assault through #MeToo, women in UNITE HERE are leading the demand for justice against gender-based harassment inside their workplaces. Housekeepers in UNITE HERE Local 23 in Chicago just won a new city ordinance called “Hands Off, Pants On” mandating a safe workplace for women working in hotel rooms. (dclabor.org, Dec. 11)FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

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RSF meets Bulgarian premier, proposes “road map” for boosting press freedom

first_img News “The prime minister is proud of his results as regards economic growth but he also has a duty to work on growth in press freedom,” said Deloire, who asked Borisov to give firm public undertakings that the harassment of critical media outlets and journalists will stop. Organisation During a previous meeting with Bulgarian President Rumen Radev on 17 October, RSF raised similar issues and condemned “the deliberate creation of a climate bordering on media civil war.” February 11, 2021 Find out more News BulgariaEurope – Central Asia Activities in the fieldProtecting journalistsOnline freedomsMedia independenceProtecting sources CorruptionInternetCitizen-journalistsFreedom of expressionEconomic pressureJudicial harassment RSF offered to draft a “road map” for structural progress that will guarantee journalistic freedom, independence and pluralism and, more broadly, reliable news and information. The prime minister expressed interest in such a road map. December 3, 2019 RSF meets Bulgarian premier, proposes “road map” for boosting press freedom News After the meeting, Deloire said he hoped there could be an improvement. RSF deplored recent “regrettable decisions” including the government’s support for the appointment of a prosecutor-general who has distinguished himself by his vindictive comments about journalists, and the appoint of a new public television director-general who has fired journalists for being too independent. The crisis at the public radio broadcaster BNR was also mentioned. At a meeting with Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov in Sofia today, a Reporters Without Borders (RSF) delegation led by secretary-general Christophe Deloire called for ambitious measure to improve Bulgaria’s World Press Freedom Index ranking, which has fallen from 35th in 2006 to 111th now, the lowest of any European Union country. Receive email alerts Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov and the delegation of RSF / bulgarian presidency Bulgaria’s general election: RSF publishes 10 proposals to rescue press freedomcenter_img Follow the news on Bulgaria RSF_en RSF and 60 other organisations call for an EU anti-SLAPP directive The RSF delegation, which included Pauline Adès-Mével, the head of RSF’s EU and Balkans desk, detailed Bulgaria’s press freedom problems for Borisov: the state-owned media’s lack of independence, government pressure on the media, how some owners use their media for political ends, the lack of transparency about media ownership and newspaper distribution, judicial harassment, the discretionary nature of political advertising and physical attacks against journalists. Before a cabinet meeting on 24 October, Borisov said he was paying attention to RSF’s recommendations and that therefore the best decision on the reform of print media distribution might be to put the post office in charge, so that the private sector did not handle it. But this will only make sense if a very diverse range of newspapers have access to the distribution network and are available at points of sale. Help by sharing this information to go further March 10, 2021 Find out more News Bulgaria: RSF condemns refusal to investigate reporter’s violent arrest BulgariaEurope – Central Asia Activities in the fieldProtecting journalistsOnline freedomsMedia independenceProtecting sources CorruptionInternetCitizen-journalistsFreedom of expressionEconomic pressureJudicial harassment At today’s meeting, RSF also urged the prime minister to propose legislation that provides a structural basis for media pluralism and editorial independence and prohibits conflicts of interest and political exploitation of the media. As one of the countries that signed the International Partnership on Information and Democracy during the UN General Assembly in September, Bulgaria must adhere to both the letter and the spirit of this document, which concerns the online information and communication space. This partnership has its origins in the Information and Democracy Initiative that RSF started. December 2, 2020 Find out morelast_img read more

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Most Read News, November 24 – 30, 2014

first_img View post tag: Read View post tag: 2014 VIDEO: Canada Marks Modernization of the Halifax-Class FrigatesThe Honourable Rob Nicholson, P.C., Q.C., M.P. for Niagara Falls and Minister of Canadian National Defence, yesterday announced the successful modernization of the first four Halifax-Class frigates. Authorities Russian Navy’s Second Mistral-Class Ship Floated OutRussian Navy’s second Mistral-class helicopter carrier Sevastopol has been floated out of Saint Nazaire shipyard’s dry dock in France. TenCate Advanced Armour to Support Royal Danish Navy ShipsTenCate Advanced Armour has secured an order from the Danish Acquisition and Logistics Organisation (DALO) for ballistic protection of the Iver Huitfeldt class frigates and Absalon class support ships of the Royal Danish Navy. The armour systems to be supplied will provide a fully engineered, lightweight solution for the protection of mission-critical areas of the Navy ships. The modular armour kits will be supplied and installed on the ships over the next months. No financial details will be provided.HMNZS Endeavour Starts Sea TrialsThe mighty tanker HMNZS ENDEAVOUR is back at sea this week, undertaking trials in the Hauraki Gulf after a long period of maintenance and upgrading, according to the Royal New Zealand Navy’s official Facebook page. View post tag: Most November 30, 2014 Most Read News, November 24 – 30, 2014 View post tag: Maritime Back to overview,Home naval-today Most Read News, November 24 – 30, 2014 View post tag: 24% View post tag: 30% View post tag: News by topic View post tag: November VIDEO: HII Hosts USS Washington’s Keel Laying CeremonyNewport News Shipbuilding, a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries (NYSE:HII), hosted a keel-laying ceremony Saturday for the future USS Washington (SSN 787), a Virginia-class submarine named for the Evergreen State. Share this articlelast_img read more

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USS Bonhomme Richard begins East China Sea patrol

first_img View post tag: USS Bonhomme Richard USS Bonhomme Richard amphibious assault ship begins East China Sea patrol Authorities Back to overview,Home naval-today USS Bonhomme Richard amphibious assault ship begins East China Sea patrol The U.S. Navy’s Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) 7 flagship, USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6), departed Fleet Activities Sasebo, Japan for a scheduled patrol on August 6.Bonhomme Richard recently competed a four-month selective restricted availability (SRA) period, during which time the ship made renovations and repairs to combat systems, engineering systems and berthings.The upgrades were made to better serve the Sailors and Marines as they support the mission of security and peace in the Indo-Asia-Pacific.“We are very excited to get the ship back to sea after a successful maintenance period,” said Capt. Jeffrey A. Ward, commanding officer of Bonhomme Richard. “The crew has put in a lot of hard work to make sure this ship is ready to return to sea and operate with our regional partners. I am confident in our ability to carry out any mission required of us.”The Wasp-class amphibious assault ship joined the Navy in August 1998 and is forward deployed to Sasebo as part of Amphibious Force 7th Fleet.center_img August 7, 2016 Share this article View post tag: US Navylast_img read more

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‘Overview of Oxford’ sales boom

first_imgThe guide, named the ‘Overview of Oxford’ and created by Pembroke College student Simon Posner, gives a tongue-in-cheek description of notable destinations in the city.All money given in exchange for a copy of the ‘Overview’ is donated to Oxford Homeless Pathways.The recommended donation is £3, however additional surcharges have been suggested on the ‘Overview’ Facebook page. An additional £1 payment is suggested for those who have a double-barrelled surname, £5 for those who drive a 4×4 in town, and £10 for those with a private croquet lawn.Posner commented, “This was intended as a joke, but it’s transpired that some students really do have a private croquet lawn at home. Most people have taken it in good humour though.One student commented on the guide’s Facebook event, saying, “Wow Simon, the extra fee charges for double-barrelled surnames is mean. What can I do with my triple one?”Posner told Cherwell, “I thought perhaps ten friends would humour my self-indulgence and donate £3 each, raising the minimum £30 that I thought would have made the endeavour worthwhile. It took off and the fundraised total was soon in three figures.”The publication originated as Facebook statuses, and has since been developed into a four-page pamphlet.The campaign is also relevant to Oxford in its chosen charity, as Oxford Homeless Pathways provides emergency accommodation and resettlement support for those who have been homeless in the Oxfordshire area.Posner explained his choice, saying, “Poverty is an outrageous mockery of dignity all over the earth, but we see it ourselves daily in Oxford, and so I thought this charity would make the fundraising seem most immediate.”However, some students have been less than impressed by the guide. One Pembroke student, who wished to remain anonymous, said, “If someone were running a marathon they would be expected to put in months of training so I find it weird that Simon only decided to put an afternoon of work into this.”He added that the ‘Overview’ was only made possible through the encouragement of his friends and the editing help of Martine Wauben and Eden Bailey.last_img read more

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Elkhart County to start the school year with online learning only

first_img (Photo supplied/Michigan News Service) It’s been back-and-forth all summer but now comes word that all Elkhart County schools will begin the school year with online learning.Superintendents from around the county took part in a phone conference with health leaders on Thursday, Aug. 6, and they determined the safest thing to do is begin the school year with students, at home, on their computers.Online learning will last through late September. The first day of class for Goshen is now set for Aug. 11. Baugo begins on Aug. 13. Concord schools start Aug. 12 and all athletics and extra-curricular activities have been suspended. Pinterest By Jon Zimney – August 6, 2020 3 275 Google+ Facebook Google+ WhatsApp Twitter Previous articleWhitmer expands Michigan mask order for childrenNext articleGuidelines, restriction for fans, spectators of high school football Jon ZimneyJon Zimney is the News and Programming Director for News/Talk 95.3 Michiana’s News Channel and host of the Fries With That podcast. Follow him on Twitter @jzimney. Twitter Pinterest Facebook Elkhart County to start the school year with online learning only WhatsApp CoronavirusIndianaLocalNewslast_img read more

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Championship lottery opens to students

first_imgThe Notre Dame Athletic Ticket Office sent an email to the student body Sunday night detailing the process for entering the ticket lottery for the Notre Dame vs. Alabama BCS National Championship Bowl Game in Miami, Fla., scheduled for Jan. 7. 2,500 tickets will be randomly allocated to eligible full-time undergraduate, graduate and professional students at Notre Dame and Saint Mary’s College, according to the webpage linked in the email. Students may enter the ticket lottery for a single ticket and must pay the $150 student price as well as a $20 service fee upon entry. Unsuccessful applicants will be reimbursed the ticket price but will not be refunded the service fee. This student ticket rate comes at a steep discount to regular tickets with a face value of $300. The email attributed the lowered price to an anonymous donation. “Due to the overwhelming generosity of a concerned alumnus, student tickets for the BCS Championship will be half-price, $150 each,” the email stated. Unlike other away game student ticket lotteries, tickets will only be redeemable by the winning students and may not be used by others, including other Notre Dame or Saint Mary’s students. “Tickets are non-transferrable and may only be used by the winning student,” the email stated. “The winning student must present their valid ND/SMC student ID at the pickup location beginning approximately 36 hours prior to kickoff.” There is no grouping process available and seating will be assigned at random. Unlike the faculty and alumni lotteries, there is no weighting in the student lottery and all entrants stand an equal chance of attaining tickets.last_img read more

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Tomato Size Regulator

first_imgEver wonder how that slice of tomato on your summer BLT got to be so perfectly bread sized?Geneticists at the University of Georgia have found the gene variants that control a tomato’s size. They published their findings recently in the open-access journal PLOS Genetics.  Professor Esther van der Knaap — who has spent much of her career working to understand the genetic shifts that have occurred between ancestral, wild tomato varieties and modern, cultivated tomatoes — has helped to pinpoint another gene that regulates the size of the tomato’s individual cells, which in turn helps to regulate the size of the overall fruit.“The knowledge of the gene will now open up avenues of research into how fruit size can be increased further without negatively impacting other important qualities such as disease resistance and flavor,” said van der Knaap, a professor in the department of horticulture and the Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics at UGA.When humans first began cultivating the wild tomato in the Andean mountain regions of Ecuador and Northern Peru, they continually selected plants that produced larger fruits.Now, thousands of years later, tomatoes on the market can weigh 1,000 times more than the fruits of their ancestors. Van der Knaap and her research team investigated a gene they named Cell Size Regulator, or CSR, that boosts fruit weight by increasing the size of the individual cells in the fleshy part of the tomato.Compared to wild tomatoes, domesticated varieties carry a mutation in the CSR gene that affects the way tomato cells develop before they ripen and fall off the plant. The variation originated in the cherry tomato but now appears in all large cultivated tomato varieties.The new study expands on previous research that had identified the location of CSR at the bottom of chromosome 11 as only a small genetic contributor to tomato weight.The transformation of the tiny, berry-like fruit of wild tomatoes into the beefsteaks or Roma tomatoes grown by farmers today involved the development of a new mutation to support the change in function of the CSR gene. Large fruit required many more mutations in other genes to allow the plant to carry and support its new bounty.“There was slow selection for large fruit by people because, of course, if the tomato fruit grew too big for the plant, it would collapse the plant and that would be a dead-end plant,” said van der Knaap. “If the fruit is too large for the plant then it can only make that one fruit before it collapses. Any farmer would say, ‘That’s no good,’ and toss it out.”It took thousands of years for farmers to breed tomato plants to produce the fruit we know today because they were selecting plants not only for large fruit but also for the structure needed to support the fruit. Van der Knaap and other researchers are still looking for the genes that contributed to the mutations that led to plants that could support larger tomatoes.“For fruit weight, I think we have just scratched the surface — there’s still a lot that we don’t know,” van der Knaap said.Van der Knaap’s team’s journal article in Plos Genetics is available at http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1006930. Other collaborators are graduate student Qi Mu; postdoctoral scholars Zejun Huang, Manohar Chakrabartiand and Eudald Illa-Berenguer; visiting research scholars Xiaoxi Liuand and Yanping Wang; and graduate student Alexis Ramos.(The staff of PLOS Genetics contributed to this release.)last_img read more