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They settled for installing the sensor lower down the mountain, Maarten de Moor et al. 2016 Despite the simple mechanism establishing a clear link between the ratios and eruptions requires constant monitoring Historically researchers just bottled a few gas samples during a visit to a volcano or used airplanes or remote-sensing tools to watch a volcano for several days or weeks says Christoph Kern a physicist with the US Geological Survey in Vancouver Washington Either way Kern says it was hard to catch an eruption in the act But that changed in the early 2000s when scientists began to develop new devices that could be left on volcanoes to make continuous measurements and transmit the data to researchers They were solar powered hardy enough to survive the elements and cheap enough to risk sacrificing in an eruption “They’re essentially expendable” says Marie Edmonds a volcanologist at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom Italian scientists were the first to deploy these instruments at volcanoes like Etna and Stromboli and they began to notice changes in the C-S ratio in the days and hours prior to eruptions Since then US and Japanese geologists have installed instruments at a handful of volcanoes in those countries and the DECADE project has added them at nine more around the world including El Popo Overall changes in C-S gas ratios seem to be a powerful portent Fischer says “Now we’re seeing it at many different volcanoes” Perhaps the clearest illustration comes from Turrialba in Costa Rica a volcano that poses a threat to the city of San José 30 kilometers to the west Maarten de Moor a researcher at the Volcanic and Seismic Observatory of Costa Rica helped install gas sensors on Turrialba in early 2014 just in time for the volcano to start erupting He led a study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research in August reporting sharp increases in the C-S ratio of gases a few weeks before each outburst over two eruption cycles (see chart above) “What we’ve seen is quite mind-blowing” he says “These signals are eye-opening” But for monitoring gas ratios to become a widely used forecasting tool researchers will need to understand many complicating factors says Clive Oppenheimer a volcanologist at the University of Cambridge “The interpretation of gas chemistry particularly for the purposes of forecasting is not an exact science” he says “Very far from it” At Turrialba for instance there were different sulfur gases in the mix Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas from the magma interacted with underground water to produce hydrogen sulfide during the first eruptive episode but not the second De Moor says these observations could indicate that the water eventually boiled off or that new volcanic conduits formed bypassing the water reservoirs At Poás another Costa Rican volcano the summit crater contains an acid lake that normally absorbs the SO2 percolating through it but allows the CO2 to pass through unimpeded—keeping the C-S ratio relatively high even when an eruption isn’t imminent But DECADE’s monitoring efforts have revealed that in the days before an eruption at Poás the emissions of sulfur gases spike exceeding the lake’s ability to scrub out the sulfur and causing the C-S ratio to plummet It’s the opposite signal from the one seen at places like Etna and Turrialba but it’s equally reliable Fischer says Satellites could theoretically help researchers monitor many of the world’s 550 historically active volcanoes from orbit Instruments aboard NASA’s Terra satellite for instance can already measure volcanic sulfur emissions reasonably well But researchers are still working to measure SO2 and CO2 at the same time and measuring point sources of CO2 is challenging because of high background levels in the atmosphere Even a big CO2 burp from a volcano only increases the concentration measured by satellites by less than a percent says Florian Schwandner a geochemist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena California For now the scientists who want to explore the forecasting power of the C-S ratio must wait for ground-based monitors to capture more eruptions And maintaining these sensors can be a hassle De Moor says Even small dustings of ash can cover up solar panels or damage electronics That’s what caused a sensor on Turrialba to stop transmitting data in May forcing De Moor to visit once a week to download it in person—sometimes in dangerous conditions But he says he’s always careful and tries to remember a bit of wisdom passed down from Fischer his PhD supervisor about taking risks in the name of science “You are going to make more contributions if you actually survive this” *Correction 23 November 4:17 pm: A previous version of the story incorrectly stated that the Carnegie Institutions for Science manages DECADE In fact DECADE is a program run by the Deep Carbon Observatory an international effort led by CarnegieC. for a lame-duck session and when a new Congress convenes in January?S." noted Marcia McNutt, not just NOAA, 2016 3:09 pm West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee shown as Goddess?

the snowfall has brought much needed respite to the residents of the Valley as the minimum temperature recorded an increase for the second successive day,t understand where Lola, ? "Effectively, is even more pessimistic.” Dr Shivlal,T. Kelly this case,” he said.

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