(PhysOrg.com) — A new study by scientists in China has found that baby rhesus macaques stressed by being separated from their mothers remained anxious and had poor social skills even three years after separation. The babies had to be separated from their mothers at birth for a variety of reasons, such as the mother lacking breast milk or being too inexperienced to care for the infant safely. Some of the babies were taken into care because they were too weak or at risk of failing to survive in cold, rainy conditions. Citation: Study reveals baby monkeys may be affected for life if separated from their mothers (2011, August 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-reveals-baby-monkeys-affected-life.html The researchers compared 22 rhesus macaques reared by their mothers and 13 reared in incubators for a month and then paired with another age-matched monkey that had been separated from its mother. At around seven months old, all the monkeys (peer-raised and mother-raised) were moved to mixed-sex social groups without adults, in connected indoor/outdoor enclosures.After being returned to living a normal life with other monkeys, the young peer-raised monkeys continued to have problems after 1.5 years, and even three years after returning to normal life. They responded to stress more slowly than monkeys raised by their mothers, were prone to depression, moved less, sucked their own fingers and toes, and showed other signs of anxiety. The researchers also found that their baseline levels of cortisol—the hormone in humans and monkeys that helps the body to cope with stress—in their hair were lower than normal. Blood samples showed blood cortisol was slower to reach a peak in response to stress than in mother-reared infants.The research, carried out by Xiaoli Fenga and Lina Wang of the State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science at the University of Hong Kong, and their colleagues, is the first study that suggests changes in the brains of the baby monkeys, caused by the sustained release of cortisol during the stress of separation, could lead to poor development of some areas of the brain such as the hippocampus, and that these changes may not be reversed by a return to a normal social life.Studies on humans have also found that adversity early in life, such as abuse or mistreatment in childhood, can lead to long-term problems such as depression and abnormal behavior patterns.The results of the study could have implications for humans, and could find application for the treatment of people suffering as a result of adversity or trauma early in life. The authors suggest the rhesus macaque is a good animal model to study the effects of early adversity in humans. The paper was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week. Baby monkeys receive signals through their mother’s breast milk Explore further © 2011 PhysOrg.com More information: Maternal separation produces lasting changes in cortisol and behavior in rhesus monkeys, PNAS, Published online before print August 15, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010943108AbstractMaternal separation (MS), which can lead to hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction and behavioral abnormalities in rhesus monkeys, is frequently used to model early adversity. Whether this deleterious effect on monkeys is reversible by later experience is unknown. In this study, we assessed the basal hair cortisol in rhesus monkeys after 1.5 and 3 y of normal social life following an early separation. These results showed that peer-reared monkeys had significantly lower basal hair cortisol levels than the mother-reared monkeys at both years examined. The plasma cortisol was assessed in the monkeys after 1.5 y of normal social life, and the results indicated that the peak in the peer-reared cortisol response to acute stressors was substantially delayed. In addition, after 3 y of normal social life, abnormal behavioral patterns were identified in the peer-reared monkeys. They showed decreases in locomotion and initiated sitting together, as well as increases in stereotypical behaviors compared with the mother-reared monkeys. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of MS on rhesus monkeys cannot be compensated by a later normal social life, suggesting that the effects of MS are long-lasting and that the maternal-separated rhesus monkeys are a good animal model to study early adversity and to investigate the development of psychiatric disorders induced by exposure to early adversity. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Citation: New evidence suggests Earth’s oxygen levels fell after the Great Oxidation Event (2013, October 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-10-evidence-earth-oxygen-fell-great.html Scientists have found multiple sources that indicate that approximately 2.3 billion years ago, oxygen levels in the atmosphere (and oceans) increased dramatically—they’ve named it the Great Oxidation Event. Though scientists can’t explain exactly why this happened, they do believe it occurred during a time of major glaciation, and was perhaps the result of the evolution of bacteria. Since that time, scientists have believed that changes in oxygen levels have been the result of a series of steps rather than great upheavals. Now, new research by the European team suggests that a change of thinking might be in store.To try to better understand what went on with the atmosphere as the Earth was evolving from a lifeless planet to the rich biota filled environment of today, scientists look to rocks formed millions or even billions of years ago, and to ocean sediments. In this latest effort, the research group looked to such samples gathered from the ocean floor off the coast of western Africa’s Republic of Gabon. Because sediments collect so slowly over time, analyzing them offers a glimpse into the past, similar in many respects to ice samples taken from polar climates. The samples they retrieved offered evidence of ocean (and therefore atmospheric) oxygen levels, before, during and after the Great Oxidation Event, and surprisingly, indicated that shortly after the large infusion of oxygen, there was a fall. The researchers attribute this fall to an increase in carbon and iron in the atmosphere, part of what they call the largest positive carbon-isotope excursion in the history of the planet. The oxygen reacted, they say, with iron and carbon forming oxides that were carried to the ocean floor. Though the carbon excursion can’t be explained either, it is believed it was likely tied to the evolution of life in the oceans. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2013 Phys.org More information: Oxygen dynamics in the aftermath of the Great Oxidation of Earth’s atmosphere, Published online before print September 30, 2013, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1315570110 AbstractThe oxygen content of Earth’s atmosphere has varied greatly through time, progressing from exceptionally low levels before about 2.3 billion years ago, to much higher levels afterward. In the absence of better information, we usually view the progress in Earth’s oxygenation as a series of steps followed by periods of relative stasis. In contrast to this view, and as reported here, a dynamic evolution of Earth’s oxygenation is recorded in ancient sediments from the Republic of Gabon from between about 2,150 and 2,080 million years ago. The oldest sediments in this sequence were deposited in well-oxygenated deep waters whereas the youngest were deposited in euxinic waters, which were globally extensive. These fluctuations in oxygenation were likely driven by the comings and goings of the Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion, the longest–lived positive ?13C excursion in Earth history, generating a huge oxygen source to the atmosphere. As the Lomagundi event waned, the oxygen source became a net oxygen sink as Lomagundi organic matter became oxidized, driving oxygen to low levels; this state may have persisted for 200 million years. (Phys.org) —A team of European researchers has published a paper in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offering a possible explanation for the apparent drop in early Earth’s oxygen levels following what has come to be known as The Great Oxidation Event. In their paper, the team suggests evidence found in ocean sediments indicates that a sudden addition of carbon into the atmosphere resulted in a relatively quick reduction in oxygen. According to Emma Hammarlund these 2 billion years old fossils represent an early life form that experimented with evolving into some kind of multicellular lifeform, but did not succeed. Credit: Abder El Albani
It is already a well-established fact that Hauz Khas Village is now the new Khan Market for foodies in the Capital. Restaurants are springing up in the narrow alleys and the very Manali-like buildings like a dime a dozen. Walk into the village which is frequented by the self-proclaimed ‘arty’ crowd and you will find the lanes buzzing till very late in the night.Which is exactly why I found it baffling that when I walked into The Food Mill, I found the restaurant to be completely empty — devoid of a single person save for the staff when everything around was full of people. More so, given that it is bang on the main road, not even tucked inside one of the narrow lanes like so many other restaurants. The explanation given to me was that it has newly opened and needs more marketing. But like we have seen in recent times, you don’t need PR or marketing for a restaurant to be successful anymore. Any regular will be able to name at least three restaurants in HKV itself which are doing fantastic business after good word-of-mouth publicity. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Where, then, is The Food Mill going wrong? The idea behind the restaurant apparently is that ‘the staff always tries to come up with fresh new recipes for breads and dishes’. Ah well! The dishes are the same old. The menu is a mish mash of Conntinental, Mediterranean, Lebanese and even a section for weight watchers. The décor (complete with a verendah like smoking section) looks more like a college canteen with colourful tables and chairs. If the attempt was to make it funky and grungy (with some iron chain like stuff hanging from the ceilings), the results clearly don’t show. But the service is quick and the waiters clearly know the menu well. So if you are lost you will get helpful suggestions. They don’t have an alcohol license yet but the mocktails are quite good. Most of the food I ordered though was unimpressive, nothing that you won’t find elsewhere. The Roast Chicken with white wine risotto though was well made. I would also pick the Supreme of chicken which was stuffed with cheese and served with mashed potato and grilled vegetables. Don’t miss out the Blueberry cheesecake though. It’s really good! But The Food Mill needs to figure out a way to attract customers. Not too many people would like being the only ones in a restaurant. DETAILAt: 2nd Floor, 30, Powerhouse Building, Hauz Khas Village Timings: 11 AM TO 12:30 AMPhone: 26522114 Meal for two: Rs 2,000 inclusive of taxes
China and Vietnam have agreed to ‘address and control’ maritime disputes, state media said on Friday, as differences over the potentially energy-rich South China Sea have roiled relations between the two countries and other neighbours.Ties between the Communist countries sank to a three-decade low this year after China deployed a $1 billion-oil rig to the disputed waters which straddle key shipping lanes.Vietnam claims the portion of the sea as its exclusive economic zone, and the rig’s deployment Also Read – Pro-Govt supporters rally as Hong Kong’s divisions deepensparked a wave of riots and bloody clashes between Vietnamese and Chinese workers in Vietnam. The two countries should ‘properly address and control maritime differences’ to create favourable conditions for bilateral cooperation, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang told Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung on Thursday on the sidelines of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) in Milan.‘Thanks to efforts from both sides, China-Vietnam relations have ridden out the recent rough patch and gradually recovered,’ the official Xinhua news agency cited Li as saying.Xinhua said Dung agreed and endorsed boosting ‘cooperation in infrastructure, finance and maritime exploration’.The comments were a reiteration of earlier pledges by leaders from the two countries. Also Read – Pak Army ‘fully prepared’ to face any challenge: Army spokesmanChina claims almost the entire South China Sea, believed to be rich in deposits of oil and gas resources. Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam also have claims in the waters where $5 trillion of ship-borne goods pass every year. Alarmed by China’s military rise and growing assertiveness, Vietnam has broadened its military relationships in recent years, most notably with Cold War-era patron Russia but also with the US.Beijing has told Washington to stay out of disputes over the South China Sea and let countries in the region resolve the issue themselves.
Kolkata: Five persons were arrested when they assembled in New Town with a motive to decamp with valuables from a house in the area. Acting on a tip off, police conducted a raid in New Town and arrested the accused.Cops came to know that a group of miscreants had chalked out a plan to decamp with valuables from a house.Based on a specific information, police was waiting at the spot where all the five were supposed to assemble.After waiting for around an hour, the police, who were in plainclothes, found the miscreants reaching the spot one after the other. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThey gheraoed them from all sides and caught them red handed. Some of them attempted to escape. But the policemen chased them and arrested the miscreants.Police said the five arrested people are SK Sarif (22), a resident of Satragachi at Moukhali in Howrah, Tahzeeb Ahmed (29) of Howrah, Goni Gazi (19), a resident of Nandakishor Para in South 24-Parganas and Anup Bhim (36) of Mahadebpur in Nadia and Satyajit Pramanik of Thakdari Pramanik Para in New Town. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedPolice recovered a sharp knife and iron rods from the miscreants.It may be mentioned that the police have intensified its vigil in the area and it has helped in reducing crime in the area. Police have initiated interrogation to know whether others are involved in their racket. They are also trying to know whether they are involved in anymore cases of dacoity.A police officer said one of them is a local resident and he had chalked out the plan to decamp with the valuables from the house. They had also conducted a reccee in the area before attempting to commit the crime.
Like women, men’s skin also requires proper nourishment and care to stay fresh. Skin care should be an important aspect of lifestyle, irrespective of age, but the technique should change as one grows old, says an expert.Indu
Kolkata: The School Service Commission on Tuesday released the final merit list of assistant teachers for Classes IX and X and announced that counselling for the same will be held from September 6 to 20. According to sources in SSC, the total number of vacancies stands at 12,905, while the merit list figures 7,662 candidates. The waiting list has the names of 8,256 candidates. It may be mentioned that 15,908 candidates had sat for the examination, that was held on November 27, 2016. The final panel was prepared on March 12 this year. The counselling for Bengali will not be held, as a litigation is going on in the Calcutta High Court.
Kolkata: A policy research organisation has advocated bolstering the city’s tram infrastructure, including exploring the possibility of electric buses making use of the same overhead power supply network. A top official of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) said at an event here Thursday that a number of European cities run trams and buses on the same electric overhead wire network. “Tram infrastructure should be improved. The state government can explore dual-use of tram overhead power supply network, as the same can be shared by electric buses,” TERI Director General Ajay Mathur said on the sidelines of a Bengal Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BCCI) programme. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life He was responding to queries on the condition of tram services in city at a time when the central government is promoting e-vehicles. “Electric buses can use the overhead tram network wherever there is such availability before switching to its own to complete trips,” he said on Thursday. Mathur said if approached, it can undertake a detailed study for better use of the city’s tram infrastructure. The TERI official said according to a finding, Kolkatans use public transport for 79 per cent of their trips. In a bid to promote electric transportation to control emissions, the Department of Heavy Industries, under the FAME-1 scheme, had recently selected 11 cities for providing subsidy to procure electric vehicles on a pilot basis. A senior official of the West Bengal government said around 60-80 electric buses would be procured, 60 per cent of which will be funded by the Centre.
A little guidance, a little support and a little care can help in changing someone’s life and that is what exactly happened, when Sunil Razdan and Adm (Rtd.) H C Malhotra came up with the idea of Gyan Shakti Vidyalaya: A school after school, for underprivileged children.Gyan Shakti Vidyalaya is both for boys and girls, each in nearly equal numbers, living in an abominable condition in the jhuggies (slums) on the Yamuna Belt. The school has been functioning in an open public park for two hours, everyday since its inception in 2006. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The underprivileged students of Gyan Shakti Vidayala, with the help of their supportive teachers organised a drama event Chanakya on Friday evening to celebrate the 10th year of this unique initiative.While the programme was aided by Samir Jain, Indeutch Pvt Ltd, the NGO is funded by Civil Society and individual donors. Ex-chief minister Sheila Dikshit along with other eminent personalities had graced the event. The 7th annual play, Chanakya showcased the political views of Chanakya, a teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor during the Mauryan Empire. Chanakya is considered as the pioneer of Political Science and his work is thought of as an important precursor to Classical Economics. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe endless effort of the students and teachers beautifully portrayed the character of Chanakya. The hard work of both the students and teachers made the show a worthwhile watch. As part of this event, the teachers talked about their enthusiasm and experience while creating this drama. They also shared their conviction and the mutual cooperation for fulfillment of the desired aspirations.Adm (Rtd.) H C Malhotra opened up about the event saying, “Our main motive is to inspire the socially and economically backward students to become responsible, capable and employable citizens with pride and sense of belonging, by providing them educational needs along social, health and hygienic care”. On how the aim could be achieved, he said, “By supporting their mainstream education in Delhi government schools and also additionally covering their activity based learning beyond their academics learning to enhance their communication skills, self confidence and by generating awareness among them will bring real transformation”.The Gyan Shakti Vidyalaya is an NGO with 430 children, out of whom a few have moved on to earn their livelihood, after acquiring the skills of their choice. Steria Noida has also enlightened the area by installing street lights. The school is managed by a core group of volunteers.Adm (Rtd) HC Malhotra also believes that the root cause of poverty is way beyond a single NGO’s power to change, but their school is giving its best with supportive teachers and donor to bring the change.
Increasing stomach fat, also known as the “hidden fat” in abdomen, can lead to worsening heart disease risk factors, according to a study. The study adds to the growing evidence that regional fat deposits are harmful and further suggested that the density of the stomach fat (measured by CT scan) is important.“The study shows that an increase in the amount of stomach fat and a lower density fat is associated with worse heart disease risk factors – even after accounting for how much weight was gained,” said Caroline Fox, researcher at the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute in Maryland. Fox said the fat density results were particularly strong. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf“Measuring fat density is a new measure that we are still working to understand and warrants further investigation. We used it as an indirect measure of fat quality and found that lower numbers were linked to greater heart disease risk,” Fox added. They reviewed CT scans to assess how much abdominal fat had accumulated, its location and its density in 1,106 participants whose average age was 45 years and 44 per cent were women. Both subcutaneous adipose fat, the fat just under the skin, which is often visible ‘flab’ or love handles, and visceral adipose fat, the fat inside the abdominal cavity, were measured. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveOver the six-year follow-up period, participants had a 22 per cent increase in fat just under the skin and a 45 per cent increase in fat inside the abdominal cavity on average. In general, increases in the amount of fat and decreases in fat density were correlated with adverse changes in heart disease risk. Even though increase in both types of fat were linked to new and worsening cardiovascular disease risk factors, the relationship was even more pronounced for fat inside the abdominal cavity compared to fat just under the skin.In particular, individuals with greater increases in fat inside the abdominal cavity showed substantial increases in metabolic risk factors including high blood sugar, high triglycerides and low HDL, or good cholesterol, the researchers stated, in the paper published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.